The main advantage of optical fiber cable is that it offers a larger bandwidth with the help of WDM technology. Lets try to understand WDM technology with the help of an experiment.
As we all know that when a white light hits the surface of a prism it separates into various coloured beams, this is illustrated in figure1.
Similarly a vice versa can also be achieved if prism is used in the reverse direction. Using the same phenomenon, WDM technology is able to send multiple signals simultaneously over a single optical fibre. At the transmitter side, all the signals having different wavelengths are combined by a multiplexer whereas at the receiver side all the signals are separated with the help of a demultiplexer, this is illustrated in figure2.
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